Short-wave ultraviolet radiation — nm is the easiest method of identification. A fluorescing component or components from the watermark or paper may have been solubilized and redeposited across the surface, shielding the watermark from the ultraviolet source.
While not officially designated as a U. During the French colonization of the Americasthis route was used frequently by fur traders. The watermarks aged under dry-heat conditions diffused into the paper, yet they remained translucent. The appearance of the watermark under ultraviolet illumination before testing was dark on the reverse and unseen or white on the obverse.
Traditionally watermarked papers used for comparison throughout the experiment were: The chemical watermarks also reflected the color of the underlying trays to an unusual degree. The test for the detection of formaldehyde yielded a positive indication of acetaldehyde in all three samples.
The high cost, inconvenience, and difficulty of producing intricate designs in conventionally manufactured wire or chiaroscuro 1 watermarks were the impetus behind the invention of a simulated watermark in the commercial papermaking industry.
A ring of what appears to be watermark material was found encircling the test spots in all papers after the solvents evaporated. Smaller secondary names, words, and dates in the corners or opposite the main design are more accurately referred to as countermarks.
The Upper Fox River begins as a small stream northeast of Pardeeville. However, the results do not necessarily mean that the materials for which tests were chosen are not used in chemical watermarks. The watermarked area of the paper was erased 25 times in a small circular motion characteristic of traditional cleaning methods.
Assigned to Customark Corporation, Appleton, Wisconsin. Traditional watermarks will be indistinguishable from the paper under either ultraviolet source. See Further Reading for additional explanations of the variations and nuances of traditional watermarking. One contaminant of special concern today is a group of chemicals called Polychlorinated biphenyls or PCBs.
The first watermarked Western paper dates from the 13th century. This phenomenon prompted interest in chemical watermarking and resulted in this investigation into some of the characteristics of modern chemical watermarks for the benefit of conservators.
Before the conservator undertakes local treatments with organic solvents, a paper with a chemically watermarked design should be carefully examined and tested to determine whether the laid and chain lines were also chemically produced.
The tests for alum and starch were positive, indicating the presence of both. The indented or embossed nature of the traditional watermark will produce shadows. Types of damage typical of these artifacts include soiling, stains from fastening implements paper clips, rubber bands, and staplestears, residue from pressure-sensitive tapes and adhesives, water and mold damage, embrittlement, and overall discoloration.
Paper product with chemical watermark and means for making same. Erasers, aqueous alkaline solutions, and organic solvents are routinely used during the treatment of paper artifacts.
This project is no exception, and the results of the tests are still being considered. Watermark designs are created by sewing metal wires or soldering metal stencils onto a wire screen.
In an effort to obtain information about any possible surface treatments or paper components that might affect the results of later experimentation, standard tests for groundwood pulp, starch, gelatin, and alum were also run Browning Watermarks tested with both of these bleaches appeared dark on the obverse and fluoresced on the reverse under short-wave ultraviolet illumination.
The United States patents Vaurio; Skofronick and Vaurio ; Skofronick cite hexamethoxy methylmelamine, melamine formaldehyde, diethyleneglycol monomethyl ether Carbitoland epoxy as the possible primary components of a chemical watermark.
The results from these experiments were recorded through written and photographic documentation. This loss of sharpness seemed to increase with longer immersion times. While drying, the watermarks appeared to be opaque and diffusing into the paper.
Washing in neutral aqueous and alkaline solutions seemed to slightly diffuse the chemical watermarks into the paper.Fox Watermark - posted in Paper and Pen Paraphernalia: Here's a wonderful old watermark from some Fox River onionskin I just bought.
I really swoon over this sort of thing. BTW, watermarks are really hard to photograph. APPLETON, Wis. (AP) — The Atlas Paper Co.
mill was constructed a year before Thomas Edison created the first commercially viable incandescent light bulb. Located along the Fox River just a few. Three chemically watermarked papers were supplied by the Fox River Paper Company for the purpose of experimentation. They were: a white, optically brightened, lightweight wove paper, GE light-and-shade, chemical watermark, 8 ½ × 11 in ( × cm).
To reach Fox River Paper & Gilbert Paper Customer Service, call Back to top. Will sales representation change? The re-organization has resulted in some territory changes.
Your sales representative will contact you in the near future Back to top. Buy paper, card stock, envelopes & more from top paper mills at The Paper Mill Store. Save money with rewards & discounts with free shipping available. The Fox River is a river in the north central United States, in eastern Wisconsin.
Along the banks is a chain of cities and villages, including Oshkosh, Neenah, Menasha, Appleton, Little Chute, Kimberly, Combined Locks, and Kaukauna.Download